See comments. The discovery was made by a spacecraft designed to look for planets outside of our solar system.
- In the Zone: How Scientists Search for Habitable Planets | NASA.
- NASA Satellite Discovers ‘First Nearby Super-Earth’.
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- NASA Satellite Discovers Potentially Habitable Super-Earth – CBS Pittsburgh.
- TESS discovers three new planets nearby, including temperate 'sub-Neptune'.
The new discovery is known as an exoplanet , a planet that orbits a star outside of our own solar system. Exoplanets are not easy to identify with telescopes. This is because they are often hidden by the bright light of the stars they orbit. TESS was designed to expand upon the work of previous exoplanet discoveries made with telescopes. More than 3, new exoplanets have been discovered over the past 20 years.
A super-Earth is a planet that has a mass between one and 10 times that of Earth. The team of astronomers says the newly-discovered exoplanet — called GJ d - is about 31 light-years away from our solar system. The planet orbits a star named GJ She said in a statement that GJ d should be receiving about the same amount of energy from its star as Mars does from the sun.
She is also a member of the TESS science team. With the right telescope and conditions, an atmosphere might reveal itself, and a world we know is Earth-sized could truly become Earth-like if it has an atmosphere anything like ours. TESS searches for planets that are relatively close, within about light-years, scattered across the Northern and Southern Hemispheres the space telescope is searching the south right now and will turn to the north sometime next year.
While Kepler can collect enough light to find planets as far as 3, light-years away, the new survey mission with TESS will find nearby planets in all locations of the sky. Abel Mendez, director of the Planetary Habitability Lab at the University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo, keeps a catalog of potentially habitable planets found thus far.
NASA’s TESS mission finds ‘missing link’ planets
Of the couple dozen known habitable planets, only four are within the field of view of Arecibo. In addition to probing distant atmospheres, follow-up observations with telescopes around the world can teach us a surprising amount about far-flung planets. The world orbits the star Pi Mensae about 60 light-years away, or trillion miles. It completes an orbit in just 6.
The planet Pi Mensae c has nearly five times the mass of Earth. To calculate this figure, astronomers had to dip back into old data of the star. Pi Mensae, or HD , was already known to have one giant planet—ten times the mass of Jupiter. That planet was found in by the Anglo-Australian Planet Search one of the earliest exoplanet hunting groups through a process called radial velocity.
The technique is primarily useful for finding huge planets, but once one is discovered, radial velocity measurements can be used to calculate mass. After determining the mass of Pi Mensae c, astronomers realized that the planet is likely more similar to an extremely small variant of Neptune rather than a very large variant of Earth.
The planet orbits the star LHS , which is a cool, small star called a red dwarf. These cool little stars represent the most plentiful type of star in the universe.
Many red dwarfs have planets that orbit in a matter of days, but the newly discovered planet around LHS completes its orbit in just 11 hours. With dozens of strong candidates still on the TESS list for this sector, there could be plenty of discoveries right around the corner. Such collateral planets will pile up during the mission while we wait to discover more Earth-like worlds that orbit their stars in a few hundred days.
But as Burt points out, even the inhospitable planets paint a brilliant story of the night sky. The star Pi Mensae, now with two known planets, is bright enough to see with the naked eye. Perhaps one of those planets will even look a bit like our own. The story has been edited to correct that fact.
There are no plans yet for an Alpha Centauri—centric dedicated search, but if— when —new results emerge, Zhao promises, they will be trustworthy. Presuming that the wobble searches are successful in finding planets around Alpha Centauri, they will still leave a lot of unknowns about these alien worlds. Such studies will indicate how massive the planets are and how they orbit but will reveal little about their physical qualities.
A potentially watery world
They will reveal nothing at all about what the planets look like. The only way to obtain that kind of information is to observe these bodies directly. No instrument yet created is sensitive and precise enough to do that. But slightly larger worlds are now within reach, and looking for them can already tell us a lot. Odd as it may sound, the first order of business is figuring out what kinds of planets are not present around Alpha Centauri.
Because of the proximity between stars A and B, stable planets can exist only rather close to each star, no more than about 2. Any giant, Jupiter-size planets orbiting in those inner sanctuaries would have long ago destroyed any smaller, potentially Earthlike planets orbiting in the habitable zone—the clement region where liquid water and hence, life as we know it could exist.
As of yet, wobbles have shown no sign of giant planets around Alpha Centauri, which is encouraging. To that end, Belikov and his colleagues have made the first serious attempt to directly image planets around Alpha Centauri.
A similar search he performed last year came up empty, which is good news: so far, there is no hint of pesky Neptune-size planets in the Alpha Centauri system, either. NEAR is the result of an unusual collaboration between the European Southern Observatory, which runs the VLT, and the private Breakthrough Initiatives, which provided funding for critical equipment upgrades.http://www.arborbound.com/wp-includes
Habitability of Other Planets and Satellites
It is the first device built and operated specifically to find planets around Alpha Centauri. Still, the researchers managed to squeeze in hours of observations, collecting six terabytes of raw data. That is well beyond what Belikov can do and a factor of five better than the best of the wobble studies. The results should be out in October, Kasper says. If the data look good, he hopes to do another observing run sometime after March , when Alpha Centauri will again be well placed for viewing in Chile.
It would incorporate a telescope with a centimeter-wide mirror and a starlight-blocking device called a coronagraph to blot out the overwhelming lighthouse glare of Alpha Centauri A and B, potentially uncovering the billion-times-fainter firefly glow of nearby small planets. He is also hedging his bets, working on a similar concept with Project Blue. As always with these kinds of high-frontier projects, money is at least as much of an issue as technology.
In the Zone: How Scientists Search for Habitable Planets | NASA
Raising those kinds of funds for a single-purpose private mission has not been easy, however. Breakthrough Initiatives has the advantage of a built-in network of such donors, including its billionaire co-founder, Yuri Milner. As part of Breakthrough Watch, the organization is studying a small coronagraph-carrying space telescope akin to ACESat.