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American Art History - Bibliography. Index Card Notes. Professional Papers.

Telling Tales: Stories and Legends in 19th-Century American Art - Frist Art Museum

Professional Correspondence. Memberships - African-American Museums Association. Participation in Conferences. Status of African American. Published Reviews and Articles. Review for "The American Cowboy". Employment and Consultancies. Rockefeller Fellowship Program. Visitor Study - Preparatory Material. Preparatory Material: "The Rainbow Show".

Visitor Study - Computer Print-Outs. Bethune Museum and Archives files. Personal Records. Administrative Records. Financial Statements.

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Printed Material. Exhibit Research Material. Lois Mailou Jones. Corinne Mitchell. General Information. Exhibit on Bethune. Contract for Technical Services. Proposal for Exhibit. Proposal for Exhibit, "Black American Art ". Slide Lists for Rockefeller Presentation. Corcoran Gallery of Art Press Kit. Congratulatory Letters. Letter of Criticism. Loan of Works of Art. List of Works of Art. Preparatory Notes. Catalog - Correspondence and Memoranda.

Draft for Catalog. Draft for Catalog, October. Manuscript Revision 2. Reference Articles and Draft for Catalog. Draft for Sections of Catalog. Notes for Catalog. Six 6 Computer Diskettes. Research Material. Article - Hiram Rhodes Revels. Reference Articles. Benbridge, Henry. Copley, John Singleton.

Edge Pine, Robert. Kuhn, Justus Engelhardt. Jennings, Samuel. Walker, W. Painting - Anonymous. Overmantel, Bayou Bend. Watercolors, Graphics. The Anti-Federalist Club. Benjamin Bannakers's Almanac. Prints, Drawings. Anschutz, Thomas P. Bannister, Edward Mitchell. Benton, Thomas Hart. Bingham, George C. Blauvelt, Charles. Blythe, David Gilmour. Brooke, Richard Norris. Brown, John George. Brumidi, Constantine. Burbank, Elbridge Ayer. Carlton, William Tolman. Carter, Dennis M. Clonney, James Goodwyn.

Collas, Louis Antoine. Edmonds, Francis William. Ehininger, John Whetten. Eilshemius, Louis. Field, Erastus Salisbury.

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Harnett, William. Hill, John William. Holmes, William Henry. Hovenden, Thomas. Huddle, William H.

Inman, John O'Brien. Jocelyn, Nathaniel. Johnson, Eastman. Johnston, David Claypool. Johnston, Joshua. Jones, Mary Ellen. Kaufmann, Theodor. Kreeling, Daniel. Matteson, Thompkins H. Mount, William Sidney. Peale, Charles Willson. Powell, William H. Prior, William M. Raleigh, Charles S. Remington, Frederic. Ryder, Platt Powell. Sargent, John Singer. Spencer, Lily Martin. Walker, William Aiken. Weeden, Marie Howard. Wood, Thomas Waterman. Woodville, Richard Caton. Artists, A-Z - Painting. French, Daniel Chester. Muller, Karl Hubert Maria. Saint-Gaudens, Augustus. Ward, John Quincy Adams. Clay, Edward - Nancy Reynolds Davison. Dissertation - Reference Material. Johnson, Sargent. Nast, Thomas Historical Background.

Potthast, Edward. Theatrical Posters - Minstrels.

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Theatrical Minstrels. Theatrical Posters - Minstrels - England. Falconer, John M. Kann, Alexander and Moritz. Lawson, Alexander. Miller, Alfred Jacob. Svinin, Pavel Petrovich. Volck, Adalbert John. Theatrical Posters - Uncle Tom's Cabin. Posters - General. Theatrical Posters Minstrels. Lithographs - Advertising Posters. Currier and Ives. Notes on Harpers Leslie's. Leslie's Illustrated. March-December , January-December December February November December Harper's Monthly. January-December , September-January Christ in Virginia: W. December December Ethnology - Museum of Comparative Zoology Agassiz.

Theatrical Performances Uncle Tom. Burchfield, Charles. Celantano, Daniel. Curry, John Steuart. DeMiskey, Julian. Evergood, Philip. Flemister, Frederick. Glackens, William. Goldthwaite, Anne. Greenwood, Marion. Gwathmey, Robert. Harleston, Edwin. James, Alexander.

Johnson, Malvin Gray. Kinigstein, Jonah. Leyendecker, Joseph Christian. MacCameron, Robert Lee. McFee, Henry Lee. Mays, Paul Kirtland. Miles, Emily Winthrop. Miller, Kenneth Hayes. Motley, Archibald. Murphy, Hermann Dudley. Reisman, Philip Mary Ryan Gal. Rosenberg, Samuel. Shane, Frederick. Simkhovitch, Simka. Siporin, Mitchell. Speicher, Eugene. Utermoehlen, William. Watkins, Franklin. Barthe, Richmond. Catlett, Elizabeth. Kelsey, Muriel Chamberlin. Owen, Jr. Prophet, N.

Weston, Thomas Isaac. Wickey, Harry and Sanford, Marion. Campbell, E. Covarrubias, Miguel. Durieux, Caroline Wogan. Gropper, William. Hart, George O. Herbert, James Drummond. McLelland, Henry. Rogers, William Allen. Rohland, Caroline Speare. Rose, Ruth Starr. Soudekine, Sergei. Taylor, Prentiss. To some white observers these buildings were too small and thus seemed uncomfortably crowded.

This is because when English rules of measure were employed, room sizes were generally in range of square feet 16 feet x 16 feet. In West African buildings rooms are considerably smaller being, on average, closer to square feet 10 feet x 10 feet. The Afro-Carolinian average room size, based on a sample of excavated foundations, was square feet approximately 11 feet x 11 feet.

These proportions suggest that slaves continued to employ a sense of proportion that recalled the traditional house types found all along the Guinea Coast region from Sierra Leone to Cameroon. Whenever African-Americans were able to exert a degree of control over their working or living conditions, there usually emerged interesting tangible signs of their concerns Jar by David Drake a. Dave the Potter. As early as the s in Edgefield District of western South Carolina, for example, slave labor was used extensively in the manufacture of stoneware pottery.

The most noteworthy black potter in the area was David Drake, an extraordinarily skilled man who is credited with producing the largest vessels ever made during the antebellum period—huge crocks with holding capacities of almost fifty gallons. But because Drake was so skilled and could clearly make the sorts of large storage jars required by the bigger plantations, the criminal penalties for his literacy were apparently overlooked.

Face jugs attributed to a slave potter in Edgefield, South Carolina, about While the potteries of the Edgefield District were established to satisfy planters needs for utilitarian wares, by the middle decades of the nineteenth century some African-American potters were making small vessels that were sculpted into the form of human heads. Generally about five inches tall although one example measures less than an inch-and-a-half , their purpose has never been discovered and thus remains open to speculation.

It is, however, worth noting that these small face pots strongly resemble wooden sculptures known in the Congo region of central Africa which also have shiny white material inserted in them to mark eyes and teeth in exactly the same manner as the Edgefield vessels. The opportunity to develop pottery skills allowed African-Americans to develop new skills even as they as retained some aspects of an ancestral tradition. While quilted bedcovers were not used in the tropical homelands of enslaved Africans, they soon learned how to make them.

Requiring thousands of tiny stitches to attach the colorful quilt top to a plain back, assembling a quilt could take months to complete. One particularly noteworthy quilt decorated with images of chalices was made in by some of the enslaved women of Mimosa Hall plantation in East Texas. Created on the occasion of a visit by an Anglican bishop, the quilt is today a high prized work of art owned by the American Museum in Britain located at Claverton Manor in Bath, England.

Bedcovers of this sort rigorously follow a strict grid pattern typical of most Anglo-American quits and in this instance black quilters contributed only their labor as the quilt was assembled. But over their years of captivity, black quilters evolved their own approach to quilt-making by developing a style open to imaginative patterns that break away from the usual Euro-American patterns based on a strict repetitive geometry. The improvisatory mode that she describes has led many quilters to experiment with novel notions of quilt design. The most adventuresome proceed intuitively working out ideas that they have never tried before although they still seem to be, in some way, familiar.

This review process has led ultimately to a preference for a set of constantly evolving patterns. The fluid design process seen in so many contemporary African-American quilts is analogous to the open-ended approach to musical composition that can be heard in blues and jazz performances where improvisational technique constantly interrupts regularized notions of tone and time.

Bars and Blocks , Mary Lee Bendolph, These exciting bedcovers have been displayed, so far, at twelve major museums all across the country and can be seen on a host of websites. Marked by bold color choices and patterns that break away from the expected regularized patterns of repeated blocks, these quilts strike most viewers as works of are equivalent to abstract paintings. Some quilters see in the quilting process an expression of homage to ancestors who survived conditions much worse than what they may have to confront today.

You can feel the presence of the person that used to wear them. It has spirit in them.

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Contemporary African-American folk artists find themselves faced with the possibility of honoring the legacy of the past even as they look for a way to make their own mark. Philip Simmons, a renowned blacksmith who worked in Charleston, South Carolina for seventy years, was trained by Peter Simmons no relation , a man who was born a slave.

Golden Age of African American Art

There is always something you can learn. So often the dominant interest in history is focused on looking back over time in order to answer questions related to origins. While the study of the historical record is important, Simmons encourages us to alter our perspective and to consider how the great arc of history also reaches forward to contemporary generations. He suggests that if we have a good understanding of older precedents and the desire look at them with care, we might be able to see how historical influences can move beneficially on into the future.

Philip Simmons, Every morning African-American basket sewers return to their chosen street corners where they ply their centuries-old trade of making coiled baskets. As early as s, their ancestors made rice fanners, three-foot-wide trays fashioned with thick coils that were used to clean the rice before it could be cooked. They also made a wide assortment of containers that were used both in their homes and in the fields.

The baskets made for home use tended to be smaller and thus their coils were thinner and their shapes more elegant than the baskets used for field tasks. When a series of hurricanes at the end of the nineteenth century destroyed the vast rice fields that stretched from North Carolina to Florida, there was no longer a need for most work baskets but the more resourceful basket makers began to focus on flower baskets and other decorative forms that might be sold to tourists. Consequently, the public presence of basket sewers has become an exotic feature of the local scene that can lure tourists to Carolina lowcountry.

During the last quarter of the twentieth century, sweetgrass basket sewers and there are hundreds of them were celebrated in several museum exhibitions, both locally and nationally, and as a result of this attention their baskets have come to be celebrated as the product of an unbroken tradition that has endured into its fourth century. One of the great contemporary stars, among many highly talented basket sewers, is Mary Foreman Jackson who has placed her works at an impressive list of notable museums that include: the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Clearly a community that can produce such talented artists deserves closer study so that their hidden virtues might, one day, become a source of national pride. Deriving history from artifacts is a tricky proposition for most scholars because they are so used to gathering information by reading written documents.